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ZKTel is major in GPON OLT,ONU,FTTx Network

Edit: Shaoxing ZKTel Equipment Co.,Ltd    Date: May 07, 2016

ZKTel is major in GPON OLT,ONU,FTTx Network

Passive Optical Network (PON) is a telecommunications technology that implements a point-to-multipoint architecture, in which unpowered Fiber Optic Splitters are used to enable a single optical fiber to serve multiple end-points such as customers, without having to provision individual fibers between the hub and customer.

A PON consists of an optical line terminal (OLT) at the service provider's central office (hub) and a number of optical network units (ONUs) or Optical Network Terminals (ONTs), near end users. A PON reduces the amount of fiber and central office equipment required compared with point-to-point architectures. A passive optical network is a form of fiber-optic access network.

In most cases, downstream signals are broadcast to all premises sharing multiple fibers. Encryption can prevent eavesdropping.

Upstream signals are combined using a multiple access protocol, usually time division multiple access (TDMA).


A PON takes advantage of wavelength division multiplexing (WDM), using one wavelength for downstream traffic and another for upstream traffic on a single mode fiber (ITU-T G.652). BPON, EPON, GEPON, and GPON have the same basic wavelength plan and use the 1,490 nanometer (nm) wavelength for downstream traffic and 1,310 nm wavelength for upstream traffic. 1,550 nm is reserved for optional overlay services, typically RF (analog) video.

As with bit rate, the standards describe several optical budgets, most common is 28 dB of loss budget for both BPON and GPON, but products have been announced using less expensive optics as well. 28 dB corresponds to about 20 km with a 32-way split. Forward error correction (FEC) may provide another 2–3 dB of loss budget on GPON systems. As optics improve, the 28 dB budget will likely increase. Although both the GPON and EPON protocols permit large split ratios (up to 128 subscribers for GPON, up to 32,768 for EPON), in practice most PONs are deployed with a split ratio of 1x32 or smaller.

A PON consists of a central office node, called an optical line terminal (OLT), one or more user nodes, called optical network units (ONUs) or optical network terminals (ONTs), and the fibers and splitters between them, called the optical distribution network (ODN). “ONT” is an ITU-T term to describe a single-tenant ONU. In multiple-tenant units, the ONU may be bridged to a customer premises device within the individual dwelling unit using technologies such as Ethernet over twisted pair, G.hn (a high-speed ITU-T standard that can operate over any existing home wiring - power lines, phone lines and coaxial cables) or DSL. An ONU is a device that terminates the PON and presents customer service interfaces to the user. Some ONUs implement a separate subscriber unit to provide services such as telephony, Ethernet data, or video.

An OLT provides the interface between a PON and a service provider′s core network. These typically include:

The ONT or ONU terminates the PON and presents the native service interfaces to the user. These services can include voice (plain old telephone service (POTS) or voice over IP (VoIP)), data (typically Ethernet or V.35), video, and/or telemetry (TTL, ECL, RS530, etc.) Often the ONU functions are separated into two parts:

  • The ONU, which terminates the PON and presents a converged interface—such as DSLcoaxial cable, or multiservice Ethernet—toward the user;

  • Network termination equipment (NTE), which inputs the converged interface and outputs native service interfaces to the user, such as Ethernet and POTS.

A PON is a shared network, in that the OLT sends a single stream of downstream traffic that is seen by all ONUs. Each ONU only reads the content of those packets that are addressed to it. Encryption is used to prevent eavesdropping on downstream traffic.